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Table of Contents
Before we begin lets look at the background of medieval history with some important dynasties which ruled before and comtemporary to Delhi Sultanate in India. The rulers in Delhi Sultanate were from Turkey .
The Pala Kingdom [750-1150]
- Founder – Gopala
- Dharampala – revived Nalanda University & Founded Vikramshila University
2. Sena Dynasty
- Founder – Samanta Sena
- Jayadeva( Gita Govind) – C.Poet of Luxman Sen
3. Pratihars – [750-1036]
- Founder – Harichandra (Gujarat- Rajasthan)
- Great Ruler- Mihir Bhoj
Rashtrakuta Dynasty [752-973]
- Founder – Dantidurga
- Capital – Malkhed (KR)
- Amoghavarsha – (wrote) —> Kavirajamarga
- Imp Ruler – Govind III, Dantidurga, Krishna I.
- Arch – Krishna I built Kailash Temple(Shiva) at Ellora.
Chola Empire [850-1279]
- Founder – Vijayalaya
- Capital – Uraiyur (T.N.)
- Grt Rulers – RajaRaja, Rajendra I, Rajendra III (Last)
- Rajendra I assumed title of – GangaikondaChola.
- Arch – Brihadeshwar Temple/ Rajarajeshwar Temple built by Rajaraja.
- Uttarmerur Inscription(T.N.) tells about Village admin. Of Cholas.
Delhi Sultanate [1206-1526]
- Slave/Mumlak dynasty (1206-1290)
- Khilji dynasty (1290-1320)
- Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1414)
- Sayyid dynasty (1414-1451)
- Lodhi dynasty (1451-1526)
- Md Bin Qasim – Battle of Aror – Raja Dahir (Sindh & Multan ).
- Mahmud of Gaznavi – Plundered India 17 times from 1001 AD – 1027 AD. Attacked Somnath Temple in 1025 AD.
- Md. Ghori –
- Battle of kayadara (1178) (Guj.)- Md Ghori & Bhim III
- 1st Battle of Tarain (1191) – Md Ghori & Prithvi Raj Chauhan
- 2nd Battle of Tarain (1192) – Md Ghori & Prithvi Raj Chauhan
1. Slave / Mumluk Dynasty [1206-90]
Founder – Qutub Ud Din Aibak [1206-10]
- Capital – Lahore
- Title – Lakhbaksh
- Guru/Mentor – Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki
- Quwat-ul-Islam – Delhi
- Adhai-din ka Jhopra – Ajmer
- Qutub Minar – Delhi
- Death – while playing chaugan or Polo in Lahore.
- Tomb – Lahore
- Capital Shift – Lahore to Delhi
- The actual founder of D.S. / 1st Sultan by Khalifa
- Battles : Jurd Revolt > Aaram Shah(son of Q. Aibak) & Iltutmish
- IIIrd Battle of Tarain > Iltutmish & Yaldauj
- Started Dal Chalisa & Iqtadari System
- Started Coins: Silver (Tanka) & Copper ( Jeetal).
- Set up a learning center at Patna(Azimabad).
- Saved Delhi from Mongols (Chegiz khan).
- Patronised Minhaj-us-siraj – “Tabaqat-i-nasiri”
- Tomb – Delhi (Qutub Minar premises)
c) Raziya Sultan [1236-40]
- 1st and only Muslim lady who ever ruled India.
- Husband : Yakut Khan (ostler) [Amir -e -Akhor]
- Altunia murdered Yakut & imprisoned Razia.
- Behram khan Murdered both Altunia & Razia.
- Tomb – Kaithal (Haryana)
d) Behram Khan
- Created Post – “ Naik-e- Mumlakat”(Head of Dal Chalisa).
- Killed by Masood Shah.
e) Giyasuddin Balban
- Abolished – Dal Chalisa
- Policies :
- Iron & Blood
- Sajda & Paibos
- Festival – Navroj
- Estd. Military Dept – Diwan-i-Arz
- Title – Zil-i-Illahi / Niyamat-i-Khudai / Shadow of God.
- Tomb – Delhi (Mehrauli)
- Quiqabad – Last Ruler of Slave Dynasty
The Khilji Dyanasty [1290-1320]
Alauddin Khilji [1296-1316]
- Seperated religion from politics.
- 1st ruler to extend to south and defeated :
- Ram Chandra (Yadav – Devgiri)
- Pratap Rudradev (Kakatiya – warangal)
- Vir Ballal III ( Hoyasala – Dwarsamudra)
- Vir pandya (Pandya – Madurai )
- Prohibited wine, Music, Dance, Jharoka Darshan.
- 1st ruler to maintain largest standing army & paid salary in cash and abolished Iqta System.
- Intoduced – Chehra (List) & Dagh(horse branding) System.
- Controlled market and goods prices(fixed prices).
- Dept – Diwan-i-Musatkharaj (collector – Revenue)
- Title – Sikandar-e-sani
- Taxes – Jaziya,Jakat, House Tax, Agri. Tax, Irrigation Tax, and animal feeding tax.
- Arch –
- Alai Darwaza (Del – Qutub Minar)
- Hauz Khas (Del)
- Hazar Sutun (Palace of 1000 pillars – Siri Fort )
- Siri Fort (Del – Hauz Khas)
- Court Poet – Hzt Amir Khusro
- Gave title to Alauddin – Sultan-E-Jahaan
- Khusro Invented Tabla,Sitar, Qawwali, Khadi Boli.
- Khusro was called “Parrot of India”
- Slave – Malik Kafur (Hazar Dinari )
- Tomb – Delhi (Q. Minar premises)
- Mubarak Khan Khusrau Khan (Killed by Ghazi Malik)
The Tughlaq Dynasty [1320-1414]
- Founder – Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (Ghazi Malik).
- Founded – Tughlaqabad city (Delhi )
- 1st Sultan who built canals for irrigation.
- “Hanooj Dilli Door Aast” – said by Hzt Nizamuddin Auliya for him.
- Tomb – Tughlaqabad Delhi
Md Bin Tughlaq [1325-1351]
- Orig Name – Jauna Khan
- Started – Diwan-i-Kohi ( Agriculture Dept.)
- Court Visitor : Ibn-e Batuta (Africa, Moracco).He wrote Rehala Book.
- 1st sultan who tried to ban Sati system.
- Called Mad or Insane Ruler
Md. Bin Tughlaq’s 5 Failed Decisions :
- Capital from Delhi – Daulatabad (Devgiri)
- Failure of Khusrau Exp.
- Increase in tax in Doab (Drought Cond.)
- Issue Token Currency (Devaluation)
- Failure of Karachil Exp. (Mt.part of UK)
- Tomb – Tughlaqabad,Delhi (died in Sindh)
Firoz Shah Tughlaq [1351-1388]
- Known as Akbar of Sultanate Period.
- Founded Cities :
- Hisar (Firoza)
- Fatehabad (son – fateh khan)
- Firozpur (Punjab)
- Firoz Shah, Kotla(Delhi )
- Firozabad (Glass city of India)
- Jaunpur ( elder brother jauna khan )
- Shifted two Ashoka’s Pillar to Delhi, Kotla :
- Imposed Jaziya on Brahmins.
- Prohibited muslim women to go the graves of sufi saints.
- Built max. No. of canals for irrigation and imposed water tax known as Haque-i-sharab
- Departments :
- Diwan-i-Khairat (economic help to poor people)
- Daur-ul-shifa (hospital)
- Tomb – Delhi (Hauz khas complex) in 1388.
Md Shah Tughlaq [1398-1404]
- Timur’s Invasion during his reign – Tamerlane (1398).
- Dethrowned by his minister Khizr Khan.
- Died in 1404.
The Sayyid Dynasty [1414-1450]
- Founder – Khizr Khan
- He did not take title of sultan.
- Mubarak Shah > Md Shah > Alam Shah
The Lodhi Dynasty [1451-1526]
- Founder – Bahlol Lodhi [1451-1488]
- Issued Bahloli Coins.
- Tomb – Delhi (Chirag Dilli)
Sikandar Lodhi [1489-1517]
- Capital shift -> Delhi to Agra
- Founded -> Agra City (Sikandrabad)
- His Pen Name -> Gulrukhi
- Intro -> Ghaz-e-Sikandri (measuring unit)
- Foreign Visitor -> Vasco da Gama
- Arch -> Badalgarh Fort (Agra)
Ibrahim Lodhi [1517-1526]
- Last ruler of Lodhi Dynasty & Last Sultan.
- Battles :
- Battle of Khatoli/Ghatoli (1518)-> Ibrahim Lodhi Vs Rana Sanga (Mewar)
- 1st Battle of Panipat (1526)-> Ibrahim Lodhi Vs Babur.
- Only Sultan who died on Battlefield.
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